Guest post by *Geoff Davies*

Many people, including many heterodox economists, understand that the neoclassical equilibrium approach to understanding economies is futile and misleading [1], because modern economies are far from equilibrium. The neoclassical prediction of equilibrium or near equilibrium requires a string of patently absurd assumptions. However the development of better theories seems to be significantly hindered by a feeling that any superseding theory has to be thoroughly quantified before it can be useful, and a feeling that the neoclassical theory has set a benchmark for sophisticated mathematics that must be matched before another theory can be respectable. Less fundamentally there seems to be a common perception that empirical insights can only be gained through elaborate statistical treatments of observations.

Here I offer some discussion from my experience as a natural scientist, and some examples regarding the Global Financial Crisis, to counter these hindrances. Useful and relatively simple models can be constructed that can immediately overcome major neoclassical limitations, for example by permitting non-equilibrium behaviour. The solution of the mathematics can be done using very standard numerical integration methods that are readily available in commercial packages. Mathematical machismo is not required. There are also situations in which the empirical lesson is obvious with no analysis, as will be noted here.

I should be clear that there are certainly many modellers who operate outside neoclassical confines, reported for example in Beinhocker’s excellent survey of “complexity economics” [2]. The lessons offered here will not be news to them. Also some of them are constructing quite complex models that are nevertheless very instructive, such as models with many interacting adaptive agents. This article is prompted by my reading of some heterodox blog discussions, and is addressed to anyone who may have some difficulty seeing how to move beyond the neoclassical approach. Nor are the models here are offered as original investigations, though they may lead to such.

Read the whole piece on Geoff’s blog.

## About Steve Keen

I am Professor of Economics and Head of Economics, History and Politics at Kingston University London, and a long time critic of conventional economic thought. As well as attacking mainstream thought in Debunking Economics, I am also developing an alternative dynamic approach to economic modelling. The key issue I am tackling here is the prospect for a debt-deflation on the back of the enormous private debts accumulated globally, and our very low rate of inflation.

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